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Common Faults and Causes in DC Electric Vehicle Charging Piles: A Comprehensive Analysis

DC Charging Pile Structure: The internal structure of a DC charging pile typically consists of a billing control unit, card reader, LCD, wireless module, power module, electric meter, and off-board charger. The off-board charger provides AC-DC conversion, while other devices offer billing, communication, and human-machine interaction functions. The charging model mainly consists of the “off-board charger,” “vehicle interface,” and “electric vehicle.”

Fault Categories:

  1. Faults Caused by the Off-board Charger:
    • If a fault occurs in the off-board charger during the charging process that prevents further charging (e.g., water or foreign objects accidentally entering the charging pile, sudden environmental temperature changes), the charger sends a “charger stop charging message” to the vehicle and stops charging. It will disconnect K1, K2, K3, and K4 within 100ms.
    • If the off-board charger control device experiences communication timeout (e.g., communication line fault), the charger stops charging and disconnects K1, K2, K5, K6 within 10s. If communication interruption is confirmed after 3 communication timeouts, it stops charging and disconnects K1, K2, K3, K4, K5, K6 within 10s.
    • If the output voltage of the off-board charger exceeds the vehicle’s maximum allowable charging voltage (e.g., charging pile output voltage limiting function failure), the charger should stop charging within 1s and disconnect K1, K2, K3, K4.
  2. Faults Caused by the Vehicle Plug and Socket:
    • During charging, the off-board charger control device detects the voltage at detection point 1. If it determines that the switch S has changed from closed to open (e.g., malfunction or accidental triggering of the charging gun button), the output current should be reduced to 5A or below within 50ms.
    • If the vehicle interface changes from fully connected to disconnected (e.g., accidental vehicle movement, charging gun cable disturbance), the charger stops charging and disconnects K1, K2, K3, K4 within 100ms.
  3. Faults Caused by the Electric Vehicle:
    • During charging, if the vehicle encounters a fault that prevents further charging (e.g., BMS system misreports real-time battery status, vehicle control device mistakenly turns off the charging circuit contactor), it sends a “vehicle stop charging message” to the off-board charger and disconnects K5 and K6 within 300ms (determined by the severity of the fault).

This analysis provides an overview of the common faults and their causes in the DC charging process. Proper maintenance and regular inspections can help prevent these issues and ensure efficient charging.

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