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Powerful Protection: Safeguarding DC Charging Piles for Reliable Performance

The interior of a charging pile comprises various modules, including the human-machine interface panel, insurance components, lightning protection devices, contactors, power modules, gun cables, and more. Electrical protection in the charging pile involves several key devices and circuits to ensure reliable operation under different conditions. These devices include TVS tubes, fuses, relays, varistors, current sensors, voltage sensors, lightning protection devices, and ground fault relays.

In the power module, from a fault protection perspective, there are components on both the AC and DC sides:

AC Side:

  1. AC Fuse: To prevent overloads, high-power DC charging piles require fast-blowing high-current fuses. These fuses should have a current interruption rating sufficient to handle the current on the AC line.
  2. Surge Protector: Utilize surge protectors to absorb voltage transients. Surge protectors can handle transient currents up to 50 kA, clamping voltage transients to safe levels and protecting other devices. Additionally, use surge protection fuses to safeguard the surge protector.
  3. Ground Fault Protection: Protect against ground current faults in the AC input section. You can use a current transformer to detect ground currents below 30 mA. A ground fault protection relay can then measure the current from the sensor and disconnect the power supply when excessive ground current is detected.

DC Side:

  1. DC Fuse: Implement input fuse protection in DC/DC converter circuits to guard against overcurrent situations. Fast-blowing semiconductor fuses are suitable for protecting downstream semiconductor components.
  2. Transient Overload Suppression: Use components like metal oxide varistors (MOVs) and gas discharge tubes, or a combination of MOVs and thyristors to protect against transients. Low-power charger subunits may require only MOVs or MOSFETs for secondary transient protection.
  3. Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Protection: Shield low-voltage circuits such as communications, user interfaces, and access panels from ESD damage by using Transient Voltage Suppressor (TVS) diode arrays.
  4. Short Circuit Protection: Employ fast-response, high-current, high-voltage-rated fuses to safeguard DC output circuits from short circuits in load currents.
  5. Charging Gun Head Temperature Protection: Use temperature sensors to monitor and protect the charging gun head’s temperature. Compliance with one of the four major charging standards (national standard, European standard, American standard, Japanese standard) is typically required in this regard.

These protection measures and devices collectively ensure the safe and reliable operation of the DC charging pile, guarding against various electrical faults and transient events that may occur during charging operations.

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